Having read about peer review recently, here are two errors.
False negatives – These are defined as articles that deserve to be published but are not. A good example comes from a Wall Street Journal article about the drug Vioxx. Basically, a pharmacist analyzed data – correctly – that showed a problem with the drug but her submission to the New England Journal was rejected.
IMHO, false negatives result from the author – “not being a member of the club”
False positives – These are defined as articles that are published but shouldn’t be. The work of Ioannidis is a good place to start such as “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False.”
IMHO, false negatives result from the author – “being a member of the club”
The good part of peer review comes from constructive comments.